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美国社会与文化
警惕麦卡锡主义死灰复燃
作者: 斯萍 魏南枝 章舜粤 来源:u赢电竞-U赢电竞官网 时间: 2020-07-24

u赢电竞JINLIANGNIANLAI,MEIGUOYIXIERENWEIRAOSUOWEI“ZHONGGUOWEIXIE”DAZUOWENZHANG,PINPINZHIZAO“FANHUA”“PAIHUA”JINZHANGKONGQI。YIXIEZHONGGUOKEXUEJIA、LIUXUESHENGHEZAIMEIHUARENBEIZHIZEWEI“CONGSHIJIANDIEGONGZUO”,YIPIHUAYIKEXUEJIAHEYANJIURENYUANBEIWUDUANDIAOCHA、ZHENGZHIQISHISHENZHITURANJIEPINQUZHU,YIHUAWEIWEIDAIBIAODEDUOJIAZHONGGUOGAOKEJIQIYEZAOSHOUBUGONGDAYA,YOUDEZHONGGUOXUEZHEBEIQUXIAOQIANZHENGHEBEIJINZHIJINRUMEIGUO,LIANZHENGCHANGDEZHONGMEIJIAOYUYURENWENuYINGDIANJINGYEBEIZHENGZHIHUA……FANCIZHONGZHONG,BUJINYINFAGUONEIWAIYULUNDUIMAIKAXIZHUYISIHUIFURANDEDANYOU。

一、麦卡锡主义是美国政治的悲剧 

u赢电竞    SHENMESHI“MAIKAXIZHUYI”?《WEIBOSITEGUOJIYINGYUDACIDIAN》SHIZHEIYANGJIESHIDE: “YIZHONGERSHISHIJIZHONGQIDEZHENGZHITAIDU,YIFANDUINEIXIEBEIRENDINGWEIJUYOUDIANFUXINGZHIDEYINSUWEIMUBIAO,SHIYONGBAOKUORENSHENGONGJIZAINEIDEGEZHONGSHOUDUAN,YOUQISHIZAIWEIDUITICHUDEZHIKONGJINXINGZHENGSHIDEQINGKUANGXIA,SICHUSANBURENYIZUOCHUDEPANDUANHEJIELUN。”XIANRAN,ZAIERZHANJIESHUYILAIDEXIFANGYUJINGZHONG,ZHEISHIYIGECHONGMANLEFUMIANPINGJIADEDINGYI。

    HUIGULISHI,1950-1954NIANJIAN,YIMEIGUOGUOHUIJIYOUYICANYIYUANYUESEFU·MAIKAXIWEIDAIBIAO,MEIGUOXIANQILEYIGUJIDUANFANGONG、FANMINZHUDEZHENGZHINILIU,DASIZHIKONG、DIAOCHA、FEIBANGBINGPOHAI“ZHENGFUZHONGDEGONGCHANDANGREN”、MINZHUJINBURENSHISHENZHIYOUBUTONGYIJIANDEREN,MAIKAXIZHUYIYOUCISHENGMINGLANGJIE。1950NIAN2YUE,MAIKAXIZAIXIFUJINIYAZHOUHUILINGDEYICIYANJIANGZHONGDANGZHONGZHANSHIYIFENJUCHENGLIEYOU205MINGGONGCHANDANGYUANMINGZIDEMINGDAN,BINGCHENGMEIGUOGUOWUYUANZAOYIZHIDAOTAMENDESHENFEN,“DANZHEIXIERENZHIJINRENGZAIGUOWUYUANNEIZUOYOUZHEMEIGUODEWAIJIAOZHENGCE”。CIHUAYICHU,QUANMEIHUARAN。SHOULENGZHANBEIJINGXIAMEIGUOGUONEIFANGONGFENWEI、DANGPAIDOUZHENGYINGXIANG,JIASHANGMAIKAXIBENRENBUYIYULIDEGUZAOXUANYANG,MAIKAXIZHUYIFANLANYISHI。ZHIDAO1954NIANDI,MEIGUOCANYIYUANTONGGUOJUEYIDUIMAIKAXITICHUQIANZE,MAIKAXIZHUYICAICHEDIPOCHAN,XUNSUXIAOSHIYUZHENGTAN。

    ZAIMAIKAXIZHUYISINVEBUDAOWUNIANDESHIJIANLI,MEIGUOSHEHUIMIMANZHERENRENZIWEIDESUSHAQIFEN,YINGXIANGBOJIMEIGUOZHENGZHI、WAIJIAOHESHEHUISHENGHUODEFANGFANGMIANMIAN。ZHEIQIJIAN,JIN200WANCETUSHUBEIXIAJIA,2000DUOWANRENJIESHOULESUOWEIDE“ZHONGCHENGSHENCHA”,SHUQIANRENSHIQUGONGZUO,YIDAPIMEIGUOZHENGJIE、ZHISHIJIEHEWENHUAJIERENSHISHOUDAOWUDUANGONGJIHEZHENGZHIPOHAI。LIRU,LUOSENBOGEFUFUBEISHANGSUOWEI“JIANDIEZUI”BEIDIANXINGCHUSI;ZHUMINGWULIXUEJIA、“MANHADUNJIHUA”ZHUYAOLINGDAORENLUOBOTE·AOBENHAIMOBEIDINGZUI;ZHUMINGJUZUOJIAASE·MILEHEXIJUYANYUANZHUOBIELINJUNBEILIERUHEIMINGDAN;FEIZHENGQING、XIEWEISIDENGCANYUMEIGUODUIHUASHIWUDEWAIJIAOGUANHEZHONGGUOWENTIZHUANJIADENGSHOUDAOWUDUANZHIZE;DANGSHIZAIMEIDEZHONGGUOKEXUEJIAQIANXUESENYEZAODAOZHANGDAWUNIANDERUANJIN;JIULIANMAKE·TUWENDEZUOPINYEBEILIERU“WEIXIANSHUJI”ERBEIXIAJIA,DENGDENG。

    MAIKAXIZHUYIZHISUOYIBEISHIWEIMEIGUOZHENGZHIDEBEIJU,SHIYINWEISHIZUOYONGZHEMAIKAXICAIYONGLEGEWAIJIDUANDESHOUDUANXINGCHENGYIGUZHENGZHINILIU,ZAOCHENGLEYANZHONGDEZHENGZHIHOUGUO。TASHENGCHENGZHANGWOLE205RENDEMINGDAN,QUEMEIYOUWACHUYIGEZHENZHENGDEQIANZANGZAIMEIGUOZHENGFUZHONGDEGONGCHANDANGREN。MAIKAXIZHUYIZHEJINGCHANGCAIYONGWAIQUKUADASHISHI、WUXIANFEIBANG、RENSHENGONGJISHENZHIWEIZAOXINWENCAILIAODENGSHOUDUAN,SHIDENEIJINIANCHENGWEI20SHIJIMEIGUOLISHISHANGJIDUANZHENGZHISHENGXINGDEHEIANNIANDAI。MAIKAXIZHUYISHI“FANGONG”DEYISHIXINGTAISHENTOUJINMEIGUODEJIAOYU、WENHUAHEZHENGZHILINGYUDEGEGECENGMIAN,BINGQIECHENZHONGDAJILEMEIGUODEZUOYILILIANG。

u赢电竞    MAIKAXIBENSHIGEMINGBUJIANJINGCHUANDECANYIYUAN。TAZHISUOYIYIYECHENGMING、ZOUDAOZHENGZHIJUGUANGDENGXIA,BINGZAIZHENGTANHENGXINGSINIANZHIJIU,YULENGZHANXIAMEIGUOSHEHUI“KONGGONG”、“FANSU”DEDABEIJINGSHIFENBUKAIDE。ERZHANJIESHUHOU,GUOJIXINGSHIFASHENGLEJIJUERSHENKEDEBIANHUA,GEGUOZHIJIANDELILIANGDUIBIZHONGXINXIPAI。1946NIAN3YUE5RI,YINGGUOQIANSHOUXIANGQIUJIERZAIMEIGUOFUERDUNCHENGWEISIMINSITEXUEYUANGONGKAIFABIAOFANSU、FANGONGDE“TIEMUYANSHUO”,ZHENGSHILAKAILENGZHANXUMU。ZHIHOU,SULIANCHENGGONGBAOZHADIYIKEYUANZIDAN、SULIANSHILIZAIDONGOUDEKUOZHANG、ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGQUDEGUONEIGEMINGDESHENGLIYIJICHAOXIANZHANZHENGDEBAOFADENG,SHIMEIGUOYIXIERENRENWEISHOUDAOLEGONGCHANZHUYIDETIAOZHANHEWEIXIE。ERMEIGUOXIANGLAIDUIKENENGWEIXIEDAOQIBAQUANDIWEIDEGUOJIABAOCHIGAODUJINGTI,MAIKAXIZHUYIZHENGSHILIYONGLEZHEIZHONGLENGZHANXINTAI,JIEJIXINGFENGZUOLANG。

二、麦卡锡主义为何阴魂不散 

u赢电竞    “MAIKAXIZHUYI”ZUOWEIZHENGZHIPOHAIDETONGYICI,ZAIMEIGUOZAOYICHOUMINGZHAOZHU。CENGJINGZAOSHOUMAIKAXIGONGJIDEDULUMEN,YECENGBAMAIKAXIZHUYISHIZUOYIZHONGBUXIYI“DISHIMEIGUOLIXIANG”WEIDAIJIALAIMANZUGERENHUODANGPAIQUANYUDESHOUDUAN。ZHIDAOJINTIAN,MEIGUOZHENGTANSHANGCHANGCHANGBAWUDUANDEZHIKONGHEKEYIDEWAIQUSHUOCHENGSHIMAIKAXIZHUYIXINGWEI,ZAIDANGPAIDOUZHENGZHONGYEMEIMEIBAMAIKAXIZHUYIDANGZUOTIEZAIDUIFANGTOUSHANGDEFUMIANBIAOQIAN。JIUZAI2018NIAN,XIANRENMEIGUOZONGTONGHAIBATEBIEJIANCHAGUANMULEDE“TONGEMEN”DIAOCHABIZUOMAIKAXIZHUYI,BIAOSHISHENETONGJUE。

    JISUOBUYU,WUSHIYUREN。MEIGUODEMAIKAXIZHUYIMINGMINGYIBEIDINGSHANGLELISHIDECHIRUZHU,WEIHEJINTIANYOUCHENZHAFANQI?GEZHONGYUANGUZHIDETANJIU。

    SHOUXIAN,MEIGUOYIXIERENRONGBUDEYIGEFUQIANGDEZHONGGUO,DUIZHONGGUODEFAZHANSHITOURUGENGZAIHOU、XINHUAIJIDAN,BAuYINGDIANJINGSHIWEIZHUYAOZHANLVEJINGZHENGDUISHOUJINXINGQUANMIANEZHIDAYA,KEGUANSHANGWEIFANHUA、EHUADEJIDUANSICHAOTIGONGLEBIHUSUO。

    JINGLILE40DUONIANDELENGZHAN,MEIGUOXIGUANLEYIGEYOUDIREN、YOUDUISHOUDESHIJIE,YIBUFENMEIGUOZHENGKECHENNIYULENGZHANSIWEI,ZONGSHIZAIZHIZAODUISHOU、XUNZHAOXIANGXIANGZHONGDEDIREN。SULIANJIETIHOU,MEIGUOCENGBADUOGEGUOJIASHIWEIZHANLVEDUISHOUHUOQIANZAIDIREN,ZHONGGUOYIZHIWEILIEQIZHONG。DANGDESHIBADAYILAI,uYINGDIANJINGGUORIYIZOUJINSHIJIEWUTAIZHONGYANG,ZAIFAZHANZIJIDETONGSHI,YEWEIJIEJUERENLEIWENTIGONGXIANLEZHONGGUOZHIHUIHEZHONGGUOFANGAN。YUCITONGSHI,ZHONGMEILILIANGDUIBIuYINGDIANJINGZHANGBIXIAOTAISHIRIYITUCHU。MEIGUOYIXIERENBUYUANYIKANDAOZHONGGUOQIANGQILAI,CHUXINJILVDAYAuYINGDIANJINGGUOFAZHAN,QITUBAOCHIMEIGUODUIuYINGDIANJINGGUODEZHANLVEYOUSHI。ZAITAMENYANZHONG,ZHONGGUOSHIZAIMEIGUOJIECHUZHENGCEDE“BANGZHU”XIACAISHIDEGUOLIZHENGZHENGRISHANG,ERZHONGGUOQUEMEIYOUFASHENGMEIGUOSUOXIWANGDENEIZHONGZHIDEBIANHUA。YINCI,TAMENRENWEIMEIGUO“YICHUCUBIAN”DEZHENGCESHIBAILE,TICHUYINGGAIGUODUANCAIQUCUOSHI,“FANGZHIZHONGGUOJIXUTONGGUOJIECHUCONGMEIGUOHUOQUBUDUICHENGDEHAOCHU,DUIMEIGUOGUOJIALIYIGOUCHENGWEIXIE”。

    ZAIZHEIZHONG“ZHIZAODUISHOU”DESIWEIXIA,HENDUOZHENGCHANGDEZHONGMEIRENWENuYINGDIANJINGHUODONGBEIKANCHENGSHIZHONGGUOZHENGFUZHUDAOHUOTUIDONGDEZHIZAI“QIANGZHI、FUHUAHESHENTOU”MEIGUOZHENGZHIYUSHEHUIDEEYIXINGDONG。YOUDEZHIKUBAOGAOWUMIECHENG,ZHONGGUOZHENDUIXIFANGMINZHUGUOJIASHIYONGSUOWEIDE“RUISHILI”KUODAZHENGZHIYINGXIANG。2019NIAN5YUE15RI,CANYIYUANKEDUNDENGRENXIANGMEIGUOGUOHUITIJIAOYIXIANGFAAN,YAOQIUJINZHIXIANGZAIZHONGGUOJUNSHIYANJIUJIGOUGONGZUOHUOSHOUQIZANZHUDERENYUANQIANFAFUMEIQIANZHENG,YIJIANGDISUOWEIDE“MEIGUOANQUANFENGXIAN”。JIUZAITONGYITIAN,BAIGONGXUANBUQUANGUOJINRU“JINJIZHUANGTAI”,JINZHIMEIGUOQIYESHIYONGDUIGUOJIAANQUANGOUCHENGWEIXIANDEGONGSISUOSHENGCHANDEDIANXINSHEBEI。LIANBANGDIAOCHAJUZHANGCHENGZHONGGUOSHIMEIGUOFANJIANDIEHUODONGDESHOUYAOMUBIAO,MUQIANMEIGUO56GEBANSHICHUDOUZAIDIAOCHA“ZHONGGUOJIANDIE”。

    QICI,MEIGUOGUONEIJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANZAOYUKUNJING,YIXIEZHENGKEDUIMEIGUOBAQUANDIWEIDEXIANGDUIXUERUOGANDAOJIAOLV,WEIZHUANJIAGUONEIMAODUN、GUZAOFANHUAEHUATIGONGLESHEHUIXINLITIAOJIAN。

    LENGZHANHOU,JINGJIQUANQIUHUABUFAJIAKUAI,20SHIJI80NIANDAIYILAI,MEIGUOZHUANXIANGYILIGENJINGJIXUEWEIDAIBIAODEXINZIYOUZHUYIZHENGCE,ZAOCHENGYANZHONGDECAIZHENGCHIZIYALI。90NIANDAIYILAI,MEIGUOTONGGUOFAZHANXINXICHANYE、JINXINGJINRONGGAIGEDENGCUOSHI,YIFANGMIANTISHENGLESHENGCHANLIHEJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPING,LINGYIFANGMIANXINGCHENGJINGJIJINRONGHUA、CHANYEKONGXINHUA,LAODONGMIJIXINGDEZHIZAOYEDALIANGXIANGHAIWAIZHUANYI,BENTUDALIANGLIUSHUIXIANCAOZUOGONGBEIJIQITIDAI。TEBIESHI2008NIANJINRONGWEIJIZHIHOU,SHOUDUOZHONGYINSUYINGXIANG,MEIGUOYANZHONGDEJIEGOUXINGSHIYEWENTIRIYIXIANLU,TEBIESHI“TIEXIUDAI”LANLINGGONGRENDALIANGSHIYE,SHENGHUOSHUIPINGDAFUXIAJIANG。MEIGUOZHANGQIDEJINGJIBUPINGDENGZAOCHENGLEJIECENGGUHUA、SHEHUISILIEYUJIAYANZHONG,SHEHUILIUDONGQINGKUANGXIANRUEXINGXUNHUAN,SHEHUIJINGJIWENTICHENGDUI。

u赢电竞    ZAINEIBUWENTIJIZHONGNANFANDEQINGKUANGXIA,MEIGUOYIXIEZHENGKEJIANGQIGUONEIMAODUNGUIJIUWEIZHONGGUODEFAZHAN,QITUJIANGZERENSHUAIJIZHONGGUO。MIANDUIMEIGUOMINZHONGZHANGQILEIJIDEDUIZHENGZHIJINGJISHENGTAIDEBUMANQINGXU,TAMENXUANCHENGSHIZHONGGUORENDUOZOULEMEIGUORENDEGONGZUO,SHIZHONGGUORENMINGUOSHANGLEHAORIZIDAOZHILEMEIGUOSHUAIRUO,WEIJIAOLV、FENNU、BUMANDERENMENZHIZAOCHUYIGEKEGONGFAXIEDEJIAXIANGDI,YINFAMINCUIZHUYIYULENGZHANSIWEITAITOU。

    ZAICI,ZAIMEIGUOLIANGDANGZHENGZHIFENZHENG、SANQUANFENLIXIANZHENGTIXIXIA,YIXIERENSHITUJIANG“FANHUA”DAZAOWEIXINDE“ZHENGZHIZHENGQUE”,WEIMAIKAXIZHUYIDEJUBUHUICHAOYINGZAOLEZHENGZHIBAOSHOUFENWEI。

u赢电竞    XIANJIEMEIGUOZHENGFUZAIYIMIN、JIANKANGBAOXIANDENGGUONEIYITISHANG,YIZHICHUYULIANGDANGDUILIHEZHENGZHIJIHUADEYINYINGZHONG。TONGGUOSUZAOYIGEGONGTONGDIRENLAIMIHENEIBUMAODUN,ZAIMOUYIFANGMIANDACHENGKUAYUELIANGDANGDEGONGSHI,SHIMEIGUOPINGHENGZHENGDANGZHENGZHIDEZHONGYAOSHOUFA。ZAIYUGUOJIAANQUANJINMIXIANGGUANDEWAIJIAOSHIWUZHONG,BAOSHOULILIANGGENGSHIJINGCHANGYI“AIGUO”HE“QIANGYING”ZUOWEIZIJIDEZHENGZHIZIBENLAIYINGDESHENGCUNKONGJIAN。JINNIANLAI,YIMEIGUOBAIGONGQIANSHOUXIZHANLVESHIBANNONGWEIDAIBIAODEYIPIJIDUANBAOSHOULILIANG,JIANGZHONGGUOBAOZHUANGWEI“MEIGUOZUIDADEDIREN”,SHITUCONGGUOJIAANQUANDENGJIAODUCHUFA,JIANG“FANHUA”DAZAOWEIXINDE“ZHENGZHIZHENGQUE”。

    CONGZHIDUXINGSHEJILAIKAN,MEIGUOSHIXINGLIFA、XINGZHENGHESIFASANQUANFENLI,GUOHUISHIZUIGAOLIFAJIGOU;ZAIGUOHUILIANGYUANZHONG,CANYIYUANDEQUANLIGENGDA,CANYIYUANKEYICHONGFENLIYONGQIQUANLITEBIESHIYIYUANHUOMIANQUAN,DEYISIWUJIDANDIJINXINGZHENGZHIFEIBANGERBUFUFALVZEREN。2018NIAN,LUBIAO、KEDUNDENGCANYIYUANZAIMEIGUOGUOHUIYAOQIUQINGCHAZHONGGUOZHENGFUZAIMEIGUODE“DAILIREN”,XIANZHISUOWEIZHONGGUODUIMEIGUOMEITI、ZHIKU、DAXUEDENGSHIJIAZHENGZHIYINGXIANGDE“ZHANGBEI”。ZHEIBUFENMEIGUOZHENGKEDAIBIAOJIDUANBAOSHOUZHENGZHILILIANG,TAMENJIYUHUODEGENGDAZHENGZHIKONGJIANDEYEXIN,JILIJIANGZHONGGUOSUZAOWEIMEIGUOGUONEIWENTIDE“TIZUIYANG”,BENZHISHANGSHIMAIKAXIDANGNIANZHENGZHITUMOUDEZAIXIAN。

u赢电竞    MAIKAXIZHUYIZHISUOYIYINHUNBUSAN,BINGJIANGMAOTOUZHIXIANGZHONGGUO,BENZHISHANGSHIYOUMEIGUOJILIWEICHIZISHENBAQUANDIWEIDEBENXINGJUEDINGDE,SHIYOUQIEZHISHEHUIZHUYIZHONGGUOFAZHANZHUANGDADEBENXINGJUEDINGDE。TONGSHI,MEIGUOYIXIAOQUNYOUYIJIDUANBAOSHOUSHILICHONGDANG“FANHUAJIXIANFENG”,DAZHEWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANDEHUANGZI,BAMEIGUOSUOWEIZIYOUMINZHUYUANZEPAOZAIYIBIAN,SIYIJIANTAGERENJIBENQUANLI、XUESHUZIYOUHESHICHANGJINGJIGUIZE,ZHEISHIMAIKAXIZHUYISIHUIFURANDEZHIJIEYUANYIN。

三、警惕麦卡锡主义沉渣再起的危害 

u赢电竞    21SHIJIDEJINTIAN,YIBUFENMEIGUOZHENGKERENGSHITUCAONONGMAIKAXINEIYITAOZUOFA,NISHIJIECHAOLIUERDONG。MAIKAXIZHUYIYIDANHUICHAO,MEIGUOJIANGZAIDUSHANGYANZHENGZHIBEIJU,ZUIZHONGHAIRENHAIJI。

u赢电竞    DIYI,EHUAMEIGUOZHENGZHIJINGJISHENGTAI。MAIKAXIZHUYIYIWEIZHEJIDUANZHENGZHISHENGXING,MINZHUBEIMINCUIBANGJIA、ZIYOUBEIZHENGZHITOUJIPOHAI。DANGQIANMEIGUOJIDUANBAOSHOUSHILIBAOZHEGENSHENDIGUDE“LINGHE”BOYIHEBAQUANSIWEI,FENGXINGPAIWAIZHUYI,JIELISHANDONGMEIGUOSHEHUIZHONGDEGEZHONGBUMANQINGXUBINGJIAYILIYONG。BANNONG、LUBIAODENGRENDEYANXINGYIJIJINQIGEBIEMEIGUOZHENGYAODEYIXIESHUOFAZUOFA,RANGRENBUDEBULIANXIANGQIMAIKAXIZHUYIDEYOULINGZAIXIAN。TAMENYI“FANHUA”WEIYOUWEISUOYUWEI,SHENZHIWEIBEIXIANFA、QINFANGONGMINZIYOU,BABENYILUANXIANGCONGSHENGDEMEIGUOZHENGTANJIAOHEDEGENGJIAWUYANZHANGQI。XUESHUZIYOU、KEXUEuYINGDIANJING、RENCAIYINJIN,BENSHIMEIGUOYINYIWEIHAODECHUANGXINYOUSHI,SHIMEIGUOZISHIDEYIQIANGDAHEFANRONGDEYUANYINSUOZAI。MUQIAN,HUAYIKEXUEJIAZHANMEIGUOKEXUEJIAZONGSHU14.7%,GONGYOU7WEIMEIGUOHUAYIKEXUEJIAHUODEGUONUOBEIERJIANG。YIMAIKAXIZHUYISHIDESIWEI,QISHI、QUGAN、POHAIHUAYIKEXUEJIAHEXUEZHE,BIJIANGCUSHIQUANQIURENCAILINGXUNRETU,CONGERXUERUOMEIGUOCHUANGXINJINGJIDEFAZHANDONGNENG,JIASUMEIGUOJINGJISHUAIBAI。

u赢电竞    DIER,QINSHIZHONGMEIGUANXIDEZHANLVEGENJI。SHAOSHUMEIGUOZHENGKEJIYUHUANGMIUDESHISHIHELILUN,YIBUFENGZHUOYING、JUXINPOCEDEYAOYAN,SUIYIJIZHONGGUOPO“ZANGSHUI”,YITUGUOXIEMINYI,NIUQUMEIGUOZHENGFUDUIHUAZHENGCE。RUJIAZHOUMINZHUDANGZHONGYIYUANZHAOMEIXINSUOSHUO,MEIGUOMUQIANDEQIANZHENGXIANZHISHIJISHANGZHENDUIDESHI“BEIHUAIYISHIZHONGGUOJIANDIEDEZHENGGEZUQUN”。RUGUOJIXUZHUANMENZHENDUIZHONGGUOXUEZHE、XUESHENG、QIYEHEHUAYIKEXUEJIADENG,BIANBENJIALIDICAIQUZHEILEICUOSHI;RUGUOZONGRONGSHENZHITUIDONGFANHUAYANLUNZHUDAOHUAYUQUAN,RANGFANHUAQINGXUHEDUIZHONGGUODECAIJINAIZHICHOUHENBUDUANZENGJIA……YICHANGXINDELEISIYU“MAIKAXIZHUYI”DEZHENGZHIPOHAIYUNDONGJIANGPAIHUAIYUMEIGUODADI,YESHIBIJIANGYANZHONGSUNHAIZHONGMEIGUANXIDEHUXINJICHU,BULIYUSHUANGFANGTUIDONGLIANGHAODEMINJIANGUANXI,BULIYULIANGGUOKEXUEJISHUHERENWENFAZHAN。MEIGUOSHIYONGQIANGYINGSHOUDUANTIAOQIBINGBUDUANSHENGJIZHONGMEIJINGMAOMOCA,BEIHOUYEYOUMAIKAXIZHUYIDESIWEIZUOSUI。JIAODONGZHONGMEIGUANXIDAJU,SHOUDAOZUIDASHANGHAIDESHILIANGGUOZHENGZHIGUANXI,QIYINGXIANGJIANGYUANYUANCHAOCHUMAOYIZHANHEKEJIZHANDENGFANCHOU。

    DISAN,BULIYUSHIJIEHEPINGFAZHAN。DANGJINDESHIJIEZAOYIBUTONGYULENGZHANMEISUDUIZHISHIQI,GUOJIAZHIJIANDEXIANGHUYICUNDUBILISHISHANGRENHESHIQIDOUGAO。JINGUANQUANQIUHUAZANSHIZAOYUCUOZHE,DANHEZUOGONGYINGYISHIBUKENIZHUANDESHIDAICHAOLIU。JINTIANMEIGUOJISHAOSHURENNAZHEMAIKAXIZHUYIDE“JIUPING”,ZHUANGSHANGJILIDIHUIZHONGGUO、SHANDONGMEIGUOYUZHONGGUODUIKANGDE“XINJIU”,QITUXIANQIWEIBEISHIJIEHEPINGFAZHANDASHIDE“FUGUNILIU”。TAMENYIXINXIANGDE,WUFEISHIYAOQUANMIANEZHIZHONGGUO,NIUZHUANZHONGGUODEFAZHANSHITOU,JIXUWEIHUMEIGUOBAQUANDIWEI。ZHEIZHONGWEIuYINGDIANJINGDUZUN、XIAAIZISIDEGUANNIAN,ZHEIZHONGQIANGYINGMANHENG、JIJINJIDUANDEZUOFA,YUJINGJIQUANQIUHUA、SHIJIEDUOJIHUADEDASHIGEGEBURU,JISHIJIEZENGJIAGENGDUOBUQUEDINGBUWENDINGYINSU,DUIHEPINGFAZHANGOUCHENGWEIXIE。

四、形形色色的麦卡锡主义必将遭到历史抛弃 

u赢电竞    70NIANQIAN,ZAIMAIKAXIZHUYISINVEQIJIAN,GONGMINZIYOUBEISIYIJIANTA,YINFAMEIGUOSHEHUICONGZHENGJIE、SHANGJIEDAOXUEJIEDENGFANGFANGMIANMIANDEQIANGLIEBUMAN。DANGSHI,FANDUIMAIKAXIDEMINGXINPIAN、DIANBAOHEXINJIANXIANGXUEPIANBANFEIXIANGMEIGUOGUOHUIHEBAIGONG。ZAIMAIKAXIDELAOJIAWEISIKANGXINGZHOU,43GEXIANDEDAIBIAOZUCHENG“MAIKAXIBIXUGUNDAN”JULEBU,ZHUZHANGJIANGMAIKAXIQUZHUCHUMEIGUOGUOHUI。1954NIAN,MEIGUOCANYIYUANZHENGSHITONGGUOJUEYIDUIMAIKAXIJINXINGQIANZE,MAIKAXIDEZHENGZHIXINYUZICIYILUOQIANZHANG,BUJIUBIANYIYUERZHONG。

u赢电竞    70NIANHOUDEJINTIAN,ZONGDEKANMAIKAXIZHUYIZAIMEIGUOSHEHUIZHONGMEIYOUDUOSHAOSHICHANG。JIBIANSHINEIXIEBUYIYULIGONGJIMOHEIZHONGGUODEGESERENWU,YEBUGANGONGRANDAQI“MAIKAXIZHUYI”DEQIHAO。TAMENYIWEIHUGUOJIAANQUANWEIMING,XINGMAIKAXIZHUYIZHISHI,JIXUSHANGYAN“LISHISHANGDENAOJU”,YIYINFAMEIGUOSHEHUIDEBUMANHEFANDUI。2019NIAN4YUE,MEIGUOHUARENLIANHEHUIJIUHUAYIKEXUEJIAHEMEIZHONGKEJIuYINGDIANJINGFABIAOSHENGMING,HUYU“MEIGUOGAODENGJIAOYUJIEHEKEYANJIE,YIJIMEIGUOGONGZHONG,JIXUGAOJUKEXUEWUJIANGDEQIZHI,HANWEIXUESHUZIYOUHEKEJIuYINGDIANJING,SHIQIDEYIJIXUZAOFUQUANRENLEI”,“QUEBAOMEIGUOBUZAIFASHENGRENHEBANBENDE《PAIHUAFAAN》HUOZHERENHEXINGSHIDEMAIKAXIZHUYIHUOSICHAO”。

    SHAOSHUMEIGUOZHENGKEMAIKAXIZHUYISHIDEBIAOYAN,ZHENGZAIYONGSHISHIJIECHUANXINZIYOUZHUYIHUAYUXUGOUDESHENHUA: MEIGUODEGUOJIAJIQIJUEBUSHIRUQIZIuYINGDIANJINGXUANCHENGDENEIYANGBAOHUZIYOUMINZHUYUZUNZHONGRENQUAN,ERSHIKEYIFANFUDIAODONGQILAI,TONGGUOLANYONG“GUOJIAANQUAN”LAIZHIZAOKONGJUHEPIANZHI,BINGGONGRANQINFANGERENDEJIBENQUANLI、XIANZHIQIYEDEJINGYINGZIYOU。ZHEIYEZAIJINGXINGSHIREN,MEIGUOSUOWEIZIYOUMINZHUYUANZEZAIQIWEIHUBAQUANDEXIANSHIMIANQIANSHIDUOMEBUKANYIJI,MEISHIJIAZHIGUANDEGUANGHUANZHENGZAIJIASUTUNSE。

u赢电竞    YINGGAIKANDAO,MAIKAXIZHUYIBUDERENXIN、ZAORENTUOQI,DANTASUODAIBIAODEPAIWAIJIDUANSICHAOZAIMEIGUODESHENGCUNTURANGRENGMEIYOUWANQUANCHANCHU。MAIKAXIZHUYIDELISHIJIAOXUNHEXIANSHIWEIHAIXINGGAOSUuYINGDIANJING,BIXUGAODUJINGTIFANGFANQIZAIMEIGUOXINGQIHEFANLAN,GAODUJINGTIQIZHUZHANGMEIGUODUIHUAQUANMIANEZHIDAYAXINTAIDEKENENGXING。DUICI,uYINGDIANJINGBIXUZENGQIANGYOUHUANYISHI,JIANCHIDIXIANSIWEI,JUANSIWEI、ZHIWEITUQIANG,ZHAZHASHISHIZUOHAOZIJIDESHI,JIANJUEWEIHUGUOJIAZHUQUAN、ZUNYANHEHEXINLIYI。

    (作者: 斯萍 魏南枝 章舜粤,单位: 中国社会科学院) 

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